topics and issues
Amnesty International reports its findings on "extraordinary
Amnesty International has accused the EU of failing to hold its members to
account for their role in the detention of terrorism suspects by the CIA. It calls for
European governments to ensure justice for suspects who were interrogated under the
programme known as extraordinary rendition.
Countries including Poland have been accused of hosting secret CIA prisons. Several
European nations have been accused of co-operating by hosting secret CIA prisons or
allowing CIA flights carrying the prisoners to use airports on their way to other
In its report Open Secret: Mounting Evidence of Europe's Complicity in Rendition and
Secret Detention, published on 15 November, Amnesty presents what it says is the
latest evidence of European countries' involvement in the CIA programmes.
"The EU has utterly failed to hold member states accountable for the abuses they've
committed," said Nicholas Berger, director of Amnesty International's European
institutions office. "These abuses occurred on European soil. We simply can't allow
Europe to join the US in becoming an 'accountability-free' zone. The tide is slowly
turning with some countries starting investigations, but much more needs to be done."
All the rendition victims interviewed by Amnesty International said they were tortured or
otherwise ill-treated in custody, the report said. A number of individuals were subjected
to enforced disappearance, including in secret CIA detention, and the whereabouts of some
remained unknown, it added.
Based on its own investigations and interviews with former detainees, Amnesty said that
eight European countries were implicated in some way in the controversial CIA programme,
and in particular that secret prisons existed in Poland, Lithuania and Romania, while
other countries, including Germany and Italy, facilitated the transfer of individuals.
Dick Marty, the former Council of Europe Rapporteur on Torture, said in October that there
was now a criminal standard of proof to support long-held suspicions that the
CIA had used Poland in a global network of detention sites for the most important al-Qaeda
suspects. Poland and Lithuania had then already begun investigations into whether
officials in each country had broken the law in assisting CIA activities, and a committee
of the Lithuanian parliament has concluded that the CIA did indeed set up prisons in the
Amnesty has acknowledged that some European countries have been investigating their role.
"There is progress in a number of European countries towards accountability. The
momentum must not be lost. The too often repeated mantra of 'need for state secrecy in
order to protect national security' must not be used as a screen for impunity,"
Nicholas Berger said.
Romania and Poland deny hosting detention facilities, but Polish prosecutors have been
investigating since early in the year. Polish logs reveal that CIA flights landed at an
isolated rural airstrip in Szymany, North-east Poland, between December 2002 and September
2003. Polish prosecutors are examining whether officials were involved in wrongdoing but
say their investigation will take months to complete.
Thomas Hammarberg, the Council of Europe's Commissioner on Human Rights, has called for
officials who were complicit in ill treatment to be prosecuted.
The UK has also announced that it will hold an inquiry into the actions of its
intelligence services in relation to alleged complicity in the torture of detainees held
Immigration to the UK from central
Europe fell in 2009
Provisional data from the Office for National Statistics, released on 25
February 2010, suggested that in the year to June 2009 the number of immigrants entering
the UK from Central and Eastern Europe fell by a third. There were 68,000 new arrivals
from the eight central European states joining the EU in 2004 ("A8" countries),
compared with 100,000 in the year to June 2008.
Overall, the figures showed there were still more people entering the UK annually
than leaving. Just over half a million people entered the UK in the year up to June 2009,
and about 370,000 left. This gave a net increase in the population of about 147,000.
Other figures show that the number of people seeking British citizenship rose by
almost a third in the last quarter of 2009 (October-December), reaching 51,315. Almost
45,000 people who had applied were granted a British passport over the same three months -
and 204,000 people became citizens over the course of the year.
Monitoring permitted immigration rates is mainly done through the Worker Registration
Scheme which counts economic migrants from the eight central and eastern European members
of the EU. There were 28,495 applications under the scheme in the last quarter of the year
- almost half the rate in the last three months of 2007.
The number of approved workers from Poland fell to 12,125, down from 16,970 in the
previous year - but that was offset by a rise in applications from Latvian and Lithuanian
Alternative data comes from the issue of National Insurance numbers - meaning people who
are probably employed and paying tax. These showed that there were 186,000 NI numbers
issued for central European workers in the year to June 2009.
The latest Migration Statistics Quarterly Report was released jointly by the Office for
National Statistics (ONS), the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) and the Home Office.
The report presents a range of migration-related data. Provisional estimates from the
International Passenger Survey suggested:
||There was little change in long-term immigration to the UK in the
year to June 2009 (518,000 in the year to June 2009 compared with 531,000 in the year to
||There was little change in long-term emigration from the UK in the
year to June 2009 (371,000 in the year to June 2009 compared with 363,000 in the year to
||Long-term immigration of A8 citizens declined in the year to June
2009 (68,000 in the year to June 2009 compared with 100,000 in the year to June 2008, a
fall of 32%)
||Long-term emigration of A8 citizens increased in the year to June
2009 but the rise was not statistically significant (58,000 in the year to June 2009
compared with 43,000 in the year to June 2008)
The report can be downloaded as a PDF document:
Migration Statistics Quarterly
Report no.4: February 2010
|EU proposes deeper ties to six former Soviet nations
On 3 December 2008 the European Union proposed deeper ties with six former
Soviet nations, even suggesting that it could involve Belarus, sometimes described as
Europe's last dictatorship. The proposed new "Eastern Partnership" with Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus would be the most significant outreach
to eastern European nations since the EU expanded in 2004 and 2007 to take in the Baltics
and the central European countries.
The European Commission proposal sets out to tempt the six countries with offers of free
trade deals, closer energy ties and easier access to visas. It proposes financial
assistance over two years worth a total of 600 million.
The proposal will however disappoint Ukraine and Moldova because it offers no clear
prospect of EU membership.
The new group is likely to meet in a Prague summit next spring. Outlining the proposal,
José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, denied suggestions that the EU
was seeking to establish itself as an alternative power centre to Moscow. "The Cold
War is over," he said, "and where there is no Cold War, there should be no
spheres of interest." Russia is less likely to see a free-trade zone on its
doorstep as a threat, whereas it had reacted angrily to the expansion of NATO up to its
Benita Ferrero-Waldner, the EC external relations commissioner, said that the plan would
bring eastern nations closer to the EU by aligning them with EU commercial standards.
For Ukraine, the favoured relationship on offer to Kiev will also be extended to
Azerbaijan and Armenia. Barroso described Ukraine as being in the "avant-garde"
of the Eastern Partnership.
Poland has been a strong advocate of binding Ukraine more closely to European structures.
Jacek Saryusz-Wolski, a Polish centre-right MEP and chairman of the Foreign Affairs
Committee of the European Parliament, welcomed the move. "The recent crisis in the
South Caucasus," he said, "has once again brought to evidence the need for a
strong EU presence in its Eastern neighbourhood. For the sake of stability on our
doorstep, we have decided to move beyond declarations, improve on our up-to-date
performance and offer tangible benefits to our closest neighbours."
UK immigration from central and eastern Europe slows
The number of workers from the eight central European EU states registering in
the UK has dropped for the second quarter in a row. Home Office figures for the 2nd
quarter of 2007 show 50 thousand applicants, mostly Polish, have registered to work in
April, May and June 2007.
The cumulative total shows 683,000 applicants from nations which joined the EU after May
2004 - but the rate of arrivals has slowed in 2007.
Between April and June 2007 there were 50,000 applications to join the UK worker
registration scheme compared with 52,000 in the first three months of 2007 and 65,000 in
the last three months of 2006.
Some 66% of the applications have been Polish, a trend which has continued month-by-month
in 2007. About 8% of the workers have dependants including children.
|* In the period 1 May 2004
to 30 June 2007, the highest proportion of approved applicants were Polish (66% of the
total), followed by Lithuanian (10%) and Slovak (10%). By Jan-June 2007 the percentage of
Polish nationals was 71%.
* Only 595 Slovenian applications have been approved since May 2004, and this is too
few to register in the chart above.
Bulgaria and Romania
Only 9,565 people from Bulgaria and Romania applied to come to the UK between
April and June 2007. Citizens of the two countries are governed by tighter rules rather
than the free access to the UK that applied to the other countries. The figures show that
between April and June 2007 3,990 were granted access to work for employers in the labour
market 21% lower than the 5,075 granted in the first quarter of the year January to
March. In total 9,335 Bulgarian and Romanian nationals had their applications granted.
This includes those registering as self-employed and self-sufficient. An additional 3,980
were issued cards for the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme.
Home Office Minister Tony McNulty said: It is too soon to evaluate the full impact
of the accession of Bulgaria and Romania to the EU. Our indications are that the policy of
restricting access to the UKs labour market is helping to ensure that only those who
have something to offer the UK are allowed to work here.
. The message is clear
while we welcome those who are here to work legally bringing their skills and
expertise and benefiting our country, those who dont have permission to work here
wont find a job.
Bulgarian and Romanian Accession Statistics 2nd quarter 2007
Accession Monitoring Report for the A8 countries May 2004 to June 2007
as PDF document (39 pages)
Economic outlook for
central Europe suggests continuing high growth
In its new forecast for central, east and south-east Europe, published in early
July, the Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies has analysed the current
economic situation in the region as well as development prospects for 2007 and 2008.
Brief country surveys are added for Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, the Slovak Republic, Slovenija,
Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Ukraine and Turkey (as well as China). An annex
contains indicators of competitiveness as well as revised projections of per capita GDP
May 2007 marked the third anniversary of the accession of the eight countries of central
Europe to the EU. The first three years of EU membership were a clear economic success.
Over the period 2004-2006 GDP in the new member states increased by 5.3% on annual
average, 2.2% faster than in the previous three years.
The new member states substantially increased their lead in terms of growth over the EU-15
and their catching-up process accelerated. The difference between pre- and post-accession
periods was even more spectacular when looking at investments. Export growth rates nearly
doubled after EU accession and trade balances in the new member states have improved.
Stronger economic growth reduced unemployment and fostered employment.
new member states
The report forecast that during 2008 high GDP growth would
continue in the new member states, except for Hungary. Nevertheless, in all but two
countries (the Czech Republic and Hungary) growth rates are predicted to be somewhat lower
than, or equal as, in the current year, because of constraints on further acceleration of
the current rapid pace of growth. There were risks of overheating in Bulgaria, Romania and
the Baltic States. Only in Slovakia did very high growth seem to be sustainable, at least
over the next two years. Export growth would be high, reflecting a favourable
international environment, growing import demand of the main trading partners and
continuing competitiveness of the new member states.
Wiener Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsvergleiche
The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies
High Growth Continues, with Risks of Overheating on the Horizon
Research Report no.341, by Vladimir Gligorov, Sándor Richter et al, July 2007
to UK find work but short of help with integration
Three reports published on 29 May by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation
examined the effects of migration into Britain. The first report examined the effects of
migration on neighbourhood relationships in Manchester and London, whilst the other two
focussed on the experiences of east European migrants in the UK.
The findings of the reports on migration from eastern Europe drew attention to weaknesses
in local services. Less than half of the migrants in the survey had received practical
information on arrival. This left many ignorant of the conditions attached to their
immigration status, and lacking knowledge on how to access health care, or their legal
rights at work.
Although usually successful in finding employment, many migrants experiences at
work, which included working long hours or low pay, had a major impact on their lives
beyond the workplace, restricting opportunities to improve their English language or to
mix with British people.
The findings made a strong case for addressing:
||the most cost-effective means of ensuring that all new migrants
have access to the practical information they need;
||the accommodation of migrants in the context of wider strategies on
||the barriers migrants can experience in accessing English classes;
||the relationship between migrants and other members of the public.
Joseph Rowntree Foundation Director Julia Unwin said:
These three reports suggest that the government should value migrants as more than
simply an economic resource and must continue to place importance on ensuring their
integration into wider British society, even when their stay is expected to be
The three reports are:
* Social cohesion in diverse communities by Maria Hudson, Joan
Phillips, Kathryn Ray and Helen Barnes from the Policy Studies Institute;
* Migrants lives beyond the workplace: the experiences of Central and
East Europeans in the UK by Sarah Spencer, Martin Ruhs, Bridget Anderson
from the University of Oxford; and Ben Rogaly, University of Sussex
* East European immigration and community cohesion by Eugenia
Markova and Richard Black from the University of Sussex.
The experiences of Central and East European migrants in the UK
This research explored the experiences beyond the workplace of migrants from
east and central Europe working, with or without permission, in four low-wage occupations
in the UK. The study was conducted before and after EU enlargement on 1 May 2004,
drawing on a survey and interviews with over 600 migrants. It explores their access to
information and to English classes, their accommodation, leisure time, social
relationships and long-term intentions about staying in the UK.
Key points from the survey:
||Migrants experiences at work, including low pay
and long working hours, had a significant impact on their lives beyond the workplace,
showing that labour market and social experiences cannot be understood or addressed in
||A lack of practical information on arrival left many
migrants ignorant of the conditions attached to their immigration status, how to access
health care, where to obtain advice and their rights at work.
||English language proficiency was a key factor in
whether migrants had received the information they needed, the extent of their social
contact with British people and how they felt treated by them.
||One-third had taken English classes
||Those with poor English were the least likely to have done so.
||Long working hours, accessibility and cost of classes
were contributory factors to this.
East European immigration and community cohesion
This study profiled new immigrants from five eastern European countries -
Albania, Bulgaria, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro and Ukraine. They were living in the
London Boroughs of Harrow and Hackney and the City of Brighton & Hove, and the study
involved questionnaire surveys with 388 new immigrants and 402 long-term residents in the
same neighbourhoods. This research explored the characteristics and experiences of
new European immigrants to the UK since 1989, including their interaction with local
long-term residents, and in relation to issues of community cohesion.
Key points from the study:
||Generally, the immigrants interviewed were in the UK to
work and had been very successful in finding employment, but in low paid work with limited
||When asked about sense of belonging, only a
minority of immigrants felt they belonged to their neighbourhood, despite feeling they
belonged to the UK as a whole. Most felt a sense of belonging to both the UK and their
||Immigrants sense of belonging to the
neighbourhood was positively affected by:
||better housing status;
||length of time in the UK;
||plans to stay in the UK;
||having their children living with them.
The three reports can be downloaded as PDF documents:
2004 Accession states unlikely to enter Schengen zone in 2007
Plans to expand the Schengen zone to include the ten states which joined the EU
two years ago will definitely not be fulfilled in 2007. A spokesman for the European
Commission confirmed the news in Brussels on 11 September, saying that technical
difficulties with establishing a central database are to blame for the delay. The Schengen
Information System II will store biometric data, including digital files and finger
prints, but the database is experiencing difficulties that have held up its
implementation. EU foreign ministers are due to discuss the issue at their October
meeting. The EU Commission now expects that borders should be opened to the newer members
in October 2008 or later - not October 2007 as originally planned. The newcomers have been
warned to expect a delay of a year or more.
Work on a new police database has fallen behind schedule to such an extent that meeting
the original deadline is practically impossible. The base, which stores information on
stolen vehicles and wanted persons, is vital for the expansion of the Schengen zone and,
although the newcomers have criticised the delay, EU officials say nothing can be done
Radek Khol from the Institute for International Relations said the repercussions would be
psychological as well as practical. "This is the practical manifestation of one of
the fundamental EU freedoms i.e. the freedom of movement of people that the EU had
promised all the newcomers. So for them it is an indication that they are not yet full
members of the EU because in practical life there are still police controls at the
Similarly, businesses would be affected by the postponement. Their goods carriers would
still have to queue up at state borders while knowing that between France and Germany or
Belgium there were no internal borders or delays carrying goods across these borders.
Two possible alternative solutions were still on the table - integrating the 10 newcomers
into the old database or having two central data-bases running in parallel. Both these
options have been described as time consuming and expensive - and diplomats in Brussels
have indicated they are unlikely to be implemented.
||The Schengen border-free area currently consists of the 15 pre-2004
countries of the EU, with the addition of Norway and Iceland, but Britain and Ireland are
not members of the zone.
Visegrad states want no delays in joining Schengen zone
Four of the 2004 EU accession states - the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and
Slovakia - said on 5 September that they wanted to enter the Schengen borderless zone
according to an agreed schedule next year. This was despite calls from Brussels to
postpone the move. All four member states had agreed to work together to try and maintain
the original date - October 2007 - or at least to negotiate in a way as to ensure that
blame for any delay does not fall on the four countries. EU diplomats have called for a
postponement because of delays in building a new police database. The four EU newcomers
meet for regular sessions within the Visegrad Group alliance to debate regional issues and
EU related matters.
EU summit sets date for Schengen
enlargement (December 2006)
Statistics released on
central European migrant workers in the UK
Figures released by the UK Home Office on 22 August showed that 447,095 people
from the mainly central European 2004 EU accession states had applied to work in the UK
under the Worker Registration Scheme. 427,095 of them were issued with Worker Registration
certificates and cards. The overall figure would be larger if self-employed workers
could be counted accurately. The data covers the 2 years up to June 2006.
Those who properly registered to work brought with them 36,000 dependents - spouses and
children - though some spouses and teenagers could also be workers. Some 27,000 child
benefit applications were approved.
Home Office minister Tony McNulty said the migrants were helping the UK economy, but as
the figures were considerably higher than original estimates for migrant workers there was
concern about potential overloading of public services in some areas. The Home
Office said, however, that they were "making few demands on our welfare system".
The great majority of migrant workers are aged 18-34 (82%). 56% work in factories.
Well over half of them were Polish (62%), with Lithuanians (12%) and Slovaks (10%) the
next largest national groups.
Stories of Polish plumbers and nurses taking over gaps in the UK market could not be
sustained by the figures. Of all migrant workers in this survey, plumbers, heating and
ventilating engineers made up less than a twentieth of one percent. Combining nurses with
nursing auxiliaries and assistants made a proportion about one-eighth of 1 percent.
Playgroup leaders, nursery nurses and assistants were a similar proportion. Of all
registered workers about 5% were in health and medical jobs.
Home Office: from Final Accession Monitoring
report (link below)
The leading areas for all central European migrant workers were in less skilled
jobs: working in factories (20%), warehouses or packing (11%), kitchen, catering, cleaning
and domestic work (10%). By contrast, a substantial proportion were in administrative,
management or business services (32%).
Liberal Democrat spokesman Ed Davey said that despite difficulties migrants had brought
many positive benefits. "Jobs that weren't being done are now being done,
productivity improvements, and the skills gap in certain sectors being met." But the
former Labour minister Frank Field thought the number of migrants was unmanageable and
made it increasingly difficult for local people to get jobs.
The south-east of England found places for just 7% of migrant workers.
These PDF documents can be downloaded:
Accession Monitoring Report (22 August 2006)
The impact of free movement
of workers from central and eastern Europe
on the UK labour market: early evidence
Department for Work and Pensions, Working Paper No 18 (2005)
lifted by four more EU countries
Two years after EU enlargement, Finland, Greece, Portugal and Spain have joined
the UK, Ireland and Sweden in lifting employment restrictions on workers from the eight
new member states from central Europe.
But the pattern of migration over the past two years indicates that these opportunities
will only be taken up in significant numbers by workers from a few of the central European
Since they lifted restrictions, the UK and Ireland have provided employment for just over
500,000 citizens from the eight central European countries which joined the EU in May
Based on statistics of registered workers, British and Irish figures show the same pattern
when it comes to the national origins of these migrant workers. 300,000 workers - 60% of
the total came from Poland. This is hardly surprising since Poland has by far the
largest population. More surprising is the large proportion coming from Lithuania and
Latvia, two countries with very small populations. Between them they account for about 25%
of the total (around 110,000 workers). Workers from the third Baltic state, Estonia,
hardly figure in the statistics - under 2% of the overall figures.
Similarly, few have come from Slovenija, and only a relatively small number from Hungary
or from the Czech Republic.
18% unemployment in Poland is one of the highest in the EU, and thus a substantial
incentive for Polish workers to seek jobs abroad. Last year a British diplomat showed that
the UK had created more jobs for Poles since May 2004 than Poland itself. There have
traditionally been large numbers of Poles living in the UK, so it has been a natural
destination for Poles looking for employment.
In the case of Ireland, which previously had few Polish residents, it is the boom in its
economy that has attracted the large numbers of Poles arriving in recent years.
EU policy document Free
Movement of Workers and the Principle of Equal Treatment
Young migrant workers in UK have their own magazine
Since European Union enlargement two years ago, hundreds of thousands of young
people from the new, mostly central European member states have come to the United Kingdom
and Ireland in search of the opportunity of work. A free weekly magazine called Fusion,
directly aimed at such young immigrants, was launched in London earlier this year. Its
editor Klara Smolova is Czech. She explained the thinking behind it.
"The aim of Fusion is to cater to people from central and eastern European
countries, mainly those that entered the European Union in May 2004, basically to give
them all the information they need for life in London and the UK in general.
They're looking for basic information, and for information about their community, about
where to go to have fun, where to eat, good tips, travel and stuff like this."
Most of the magazine is in English. One section is translated into all of the eight
languages, is a section called First Aid, which gives very essential information about how
to open a bank account, how to get insured, how to find a job. An unofficial estimate is
that there are about half a million central Europeans in London now. The biggest community
is of Polish people, about 58%.
"According to the statistics from the workers registration scheme," Klara
Smolová explained, "when they come here they mostly engage in administration and
business management, and then hospitality and catering. And in third place is agriculture,
which is rather seasonal work. But I've also met a lot of people that are studying or want
to advance their career."
It might seem that with the Poles the biggest group of central Europeans in London, that
might influence the content of Fusion magazine, but Klara Smolová denied this.
"We are trying to be very equal and offer information for everybody, and treat all
the nations equally."
Fusion magazine has an on-line version
European Year of
The year 2006 has been officially designated by the European Commission as European
Year of Workers Mobility (EYWM). The campaign was launched in February 2006 at
a major conference in Brussels entitled: Workers Mobility: a right, an option,
This European Year is the first of its kind to pair the issues of employment and
mobility, aiming to help Europeans learn more easily about working across borders and
One of the major EYWM events in 2006 will be the first European-wide Job Fair
simultaneous job fairs taking place in more than 50 European cities on 29-30 September.
Throughout 2006, public authorities, social partners, business, academia and citizens at
large have been invited to develop new initiatives designed to improve the management of
skills and adaptability of European workers. The EYWM will be a step towards more and
better jobs and the creation of a true European labour market. Around 4 million euros will
be dedicated to pilot projects and activities to raise mobility awareness. A new web
portal on job vacancies across Europe will be launched during 2006. Work will continue on
improving the portability of pension rights, and on implementation of the European Health
Why a European Year of
Workers Mobility ?
There are currently few reliable statistics on mobility, but it seems that
mobility rates in the EU remain relatively low, both in terms of occupational and
In terms of occupational mobility, the number of workers in the EU who have changed jobs
over the past year has rarely exceeded 10%. There is a comparison with the USA - American
workers stay an average of around 6.7 years in the same job. In Europe the average
duration of employment is 10.6 years.
On the question of geographical mobility, recent studies show that only around 2% of the
EU-25 working age population live in a different EU state from their country of origin.
Although cross-border commuting between EU states has been steadily increasing over recent
years, it still remains quite low Belgium has the highest rate, with 1.7% of its
working residents working in neighbouring countries.
Click for more about the European Year of Workers Mobility
Flying swans picture UK
presidency of EU
Twelve swans in an arrowhead formation, the leading bird soaring high into the
air on its strong wings - this is the chosen logo for the UK Presidency of the European
Union, which began its 6 month stint on 1 July. "The idea is a metaphor for
leadership, teamwork and efficiency, which is particularly appropriate for the EU, given
the system of rotating leadership," explained Kate Thomson of the European
Secretariat of the UK Cabinet Office .
Austrian newspaper Der Standard extended the explanation:
"Migrating birds fly in a V formation. This is highly efficient, because all the
birds in the formation, except for the leader, are in the slipstream of another bird.
Periodically the leading bird drops back and another bird moves up to take its
The designers of the swan logo wanted to avoid "the usual clichés" especially
stars borrowed from the EU flag. The last UK logo, for its 1998 presidency, was an
arrangement of children's drawings of stars, unkindly compared by some to squashed pizzas.
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds thought the logo was "very
appropriate" because migrating birds, such as the Bewick's swan, united Europe. One
of the concerns to be tackled in the UK's EU and G8 presidencies, it also pointed out, was
climate change, which could potentially prevent Whooper and Bewick's swans wintering in
Sir Stephen Wall
on the British Presidency
Mixed feelings about future enlargement of European Union
Olli Rehn, the European Commissioner handling future accession to the EU, refers
to the current crisis in confidence as "Enlargement Blues" but he still believes
there will be further expansion.
But it is clear that many citizens among the 450 million people in the present 25 states
think the EU is already too large. The "No" votes in France and the Netherlands
on approval of the new EU constitution appear to be partly due to hostility to
enlargement. In the Netherlands research by the Maurice de Hond institute found that,
among Dutch "No" voters, 40% were motivated by opposition to enlargement.
France's CSA opinion poll found that for 14% of all French voters it was the possible
entry of Turkey that was the most important issue in the referendum. They were worried
that the constitution would pave the way for Turkey to become the first Muslim nation
inside the EU.
The present position in countries which may
join the EU
Romania and Bulgaria have signed treaties with
the EU to join in 2007 or 2008. There is still a risk that one or both could be failed
over corruption or other weaknesses, and their accession could therefore be delayed for at
least a year.
It was agreed in October 2005 that Turkey could start initial accession
The resumption of talks with Croatia leading towards full membership were
approved in October 2005. This has been offered subject to more active co-operation
with the War Crimes Tribunal in the Hague. But if it does not promptly hand
over indicted former army general Ante Gotovina, Croatia could quickly become a casualty
of "enlargement blues".
Albania, Bosnia, Macedonia and Serbia
& Montenegro expect to join eventually, but are not ready to start accession
In eastern Europe Georgia, Moldova and the Ukraine
hope to be accepted for the membership process, but no formal candidature has been
There has also been speculation that more of the Mediterranean littoral, including North
African states such as Morocco and Algeria, may be
long-term candidates for membership.
Internal politics in Germany and France have led to contradictory
attitudes to eastwards expansion, mainly from the fear of cheap labour undermining social
standards. In Britain, Scandinavia and the central European countries there remains
confidence in the value of further expansion. Positive policies see advantages in
including Muslim countries and encouraging economic and political stability.
portal for young people in Europe
A recent addition to the Europa internet site is the European Youth Portal - an initiative
of the European Commission. Its aim is to give young people 15-25 quick and easy access to
relevant information on European topics relevant to young people. The aim is to increase
their participation in public life and active citizenship. The initiative was first
suggested in a European Commission White Paper A new impetus for European Youth.
There is a discussion forum on the future of Europe moderated by the European Youth Forum.
The main content is translated into 22 languages - an ambitious undertaking but not yet
complete. Basic information (such as the homepage, pages with a European dimension,
introductory pages on themes) will be offered in all official EU languages. More specific
information on some topics and on particular countries will be offered in the official
language of the country and in English.
Internet usage in the EU
In the 25 countries of the EU during the first quarter of 2004, 47% of
individuals aged from 16 to 74 used the internet. More men used the internet than women,
and more young people than old. At the beginning of 2004, 89% of businesses were using the
internet, and over half had broadband connection.
Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Communities, recently released the
results of its survey of internet usage by individuals and enterprises for the 25 EU
member states, plus Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Norway and Iceland. As well as internet
use, the report covers broadband connections, e-commerce and e-government.
In the first quarter of 2004, the highest levels of internet usage by individuals in the
EU25 were recorded in Sweden (82%), Denmark (76%) and Finland (70%). The lowest levels
were registered in Greece (20%), Hungary (28%), Lithuania, Poland and Portugal (all 29%).
On average the proportion of men using the internet (51%) was higher than for women (43%).
Only in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland was usage more or less the same for men and
Internet usage was highest amongst those aged 16 to 24, and decreased with age. Across the
EU25, 76% of men and 74% of women used the internet during the research period. Amongst
those aged 25 to 54 it was just over half (men: 57%, women: 51%), and for those aged 55 to
74 it was a quarter or less (men: 26%, women: 16%).
At the beginning of 2004, the highest levels of internet usage by businesses were recorded
in Denmark and Finland (both 97%), and in Belgium and Sweden (both 96%). The lowest levels
were registered in Portugal (77%), Hungary (78%), Lithuania (81%), and Cyprus (82%).
Broadband offers a much faster connection to the internet, and offers the potential of
changing the way the internet is used. Among the Member States for which data is
available, the proportion of households with a broadband connection in 2004 was highest in
Denmark (36%), Finland (21%) and Estonia (20%). Across the EU25, 53% of businesses had a
broadband connection. The highest levels were recorded in Denmark (80%), Sweden (75%) and
People trafficking from
south-eastern Europe worsens
Human trafficking for the sex trade and cheap labour is on the increase in
Europe but is less visible because it is going deeper underground, officials of the OSCE
and U.N. agencies said at the end of March. The problem -- particularly involving men,
women and children from south-eastern Europe -- was made worse by governments in western
Europe who treated people trafficked as criminals rather than victims of a global criminal
"The problem is not diminishing... but is going more underground," Helga Konrad of the Organisation for
Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) said on 31 March. "For example, you no
longer find the women victims only in brothels but also in private apartments and
A joint report with the OSCE by the U.N. children's agency UNICEF and the refugee
organisation UNHCR said that to combat the lucrative business all European countries
needed to adopt more flexible policies. These would have to adapt to the "changing
nature of trafficking" and be combined with more research into what fuels the
business. That would include the demand in Western Europe for cheap, unprotected labour
U.N. Deputy High Commissioner for Refugees Mehr Khan Williams said that adults and
children who had been trafficked should be treated as victims, not illegal immigrants.
Sending them back to their countries of origin was ineffective.
The 337-page report Trafficking in human beings in south eastern Europe covered
Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Romania and Serbia &
full 2004 report can be downloaded as a PDF file
EU sets out
the facts behind the media fantasies
The Press and Communication directorate of the European Commission has begun a
counter-offensive against the British media. In mid January its website included a list
some of the distortions of EU policy, and gives detailed information on the real facts
behind some of the bizarre stories which leave newspaper readers with a "picture of
the EU as a bunch of mad eurocrats". While the website is aimed at all European
media, nearly 90% of the stories come from Britain. Most British national papers are
criticised - with The Sun and the Daily Mail in the lead - as well as
the BBC website. Even The Times has 6 articles included. "The British press
is quite prepared to report fantasy, and they have a habit of deliberately distorting
stuff. But many of them are very funny, and we have a laugh ourselves. We do have a sense
of humour," a Commission official said.
The Commission hopes that targeting the British press - the most influential in Europe -
will stop stories from spreading. "Mostly, they start in the British press and
spread. The story about pigs needing toys started in Britain and went to Germany and the
Czech Republic," the official said.
The website, called Get Your
Facts Straight, had been intended for journalists, but Margot Wallstrom, the new
Communications Commissioner, whose job is to improve the image of the EU, wants the public
to see it too. With the European constitution soon being put to a referendum in 11 member
states, the Commission has made a priority of improving public confidence in the EU.
"It is useful to remind people of the truth. Our purpose is to ensure there is an
informed debate, and this is part of that."
The British Government spokesman in Brussels commented: "It's a good thing if stories
are rebutted, but it would be better if journalists reported them right in the first
Some of the stories rebutted by the EU did not actually originate with the Commission, but
with other European bodies. Others seem to be the result of over-zealous interpretation by
local authorities or trade associations. Sometimes issues are represented as compulsory,
whereas they are actually voluntary.
See some examples - with links to the
Central European workers
have contributed £240 million to UK economy
Home Office minister Des Browne said on 22 February that workers from central
Europe had contributed £240m to the UK economy up to the end of December 2004. More than
half of all these workers were from Poland, with Lithuanians and Latvians being the next
biggest groups. Most worked in hospitality, catering, agriculture or other service
More than 130,000 people from central Europe have registered to work in the UK since their
countries joined the EU last May, Home Office figures released on 22 February showed. The
worker registration scheme was set up by the Government to monitor the impact of EU
accession on the UK labour market and restrict access to benefits. The total number of
applicants since May 2004 totalled around 130,000. The numbers registering declined in the
last quarter of 2004. There were 40,000 new workers registering in October-December
compared with 59,000 during May-July.
||Around 40% of migrant workers from
Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenija, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Poland
were already in the UK before EU accession in May 2004. "People from the accession
states already here have legitimised their position by registering with the scheme and are
now contributing to our economy, paying tax and National Insurance," Des Browne said.
"Workers now available from the new EU countries mean that we can phase out over time
our current quota-based schemes in the agriculture, food processing and hospitality
Des Browne emphasised that the figures showed how strong and vibrant the UK
economy was. "We are not and cannot be 'fortress Britain' if our businesses are to
grow and prosper and our economy to thrive. We are a strong player in an increasingly
international marketplace, and today's figures show that we are successfully attracting
the workers that Britain needs."
At the end of 2004 central European workers made up just under 0.4% of all workers in the
UK. They can only claim unemployment benefit after a year's continuous employment. Fewer
than 800 were receiving benefits with 97% having claims refused immediately, according to
the report. Many workers were returning home after brief periods of temporary work or
unsuccessful attempts to find work, the report added. The Government's five year strategy
on migration set out plans to bring in a points-based system for people applying to work
in the UK. Points would be adjusted to respond to changes in the labour market, giving the
system flexibility and control.
The full Accession
Monitoring Report, May - December 2004 can be downloaded as a PDF file
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